Tag Archives: Bifurcation

Bifurcations from Strogatz’ Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos

The following models are replicated from Steven Strogatz’ excellent text, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos.

These are just a few of the many models in the text. They illustrate bifurcations in one-dimensional systems (saddle node, transcritical, pitchfork) and one two-dimensional system (Hopf). The pitchfork bifurcation is closely related to the cusp catastrophe in the climate model recently posted.

Spiral from a point near the unstable fixed point at the origin to a stable limit cycle after a Hopf bifurcation (mu=.075, r0 = .025)

These are in support of an upcoming post on bifurcations and tipping points, so I won’t say more at the moment. I encourage you to read the book. If you replicate more of the models in it, I’d love to have copies here.

These are systems in normal form and therefore dimensionless and lacking in physical interpretation, though they certainly crop up in many real-world systems.

3-1 saddle node bifurcation.mdl

3-2 transcritical bifurcation.mdl

3-4 pitchfork bifurcation.mdl

8.2 Hopf bifurcation.mdl

Update: A related generic model illustrating critical slowing down:

critical slowing.mdl

Climate Catastrophe

This is an interesting, simple model of global ice age dynamics, from:

“A Catastrophe Model of the Paleoclimate”, Douglas R MacAyeal, Journal of Glaciology, Vol 24 No 90, 1979

It illustrates a pitchfork bifurcation as a slice through a cusp catastrophe. It’s conceptually related to earlier models by Budyko and Weertmans that demonstrated hysteresis in temperature and ice sheet dynamics.

The model is used qualitatively in the paper. I’ve assigned units of measure and parameter values that reveal the behavior of the catastrophe, but there’s no guarantee that they are physically realistic.

The .vpm package includes several .cin (changes) files that reproduce interesting tests on the model. The model runs in PLE, but you may want to use the Model Reader to access the .cin files in SyntheSim.

Catastrophe.vpm

 

Bifurcating Salmon

A nifty paper on nonlinear dynamics of salmon populations caught my eye on ArXiv.org today. The math is straightforward and elegant, so I replicated the model in Vensim.

A three-species model explaining cyclic dominance of pacific salmon

Authors: Christian Guill, Barbara Drossel, Wolfram Just, Eddy Carmack

Abstract: The four-year oscillations of the number of spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that return to their native stream within the Fraser River basin in Canada are a striking example of population oscillations. The period of the oscillation corresponds to the dominant generation time of these fish. Various – not fully convincing – explanations for these oscillations have been proposed, including stochastic influences, depensatory fishing, or genetic effects. Here, we show that the oscillations can be explained as a stable dynamical attractor of the population dynamics, resulting from a strong resonance near a Neimark Sacker bifurcation. This explains not only the long-term persistence of these oscillations, but also reproduces correctly the empirical sequence of salmon abundance within one period of the oscillations. Furthermore, it explains the observation that these oscillations occur only in sockeye stocks originating from large oligotrophic lakes, and that they are usually not observed in salmon species that have a longer generation time.

The paper does a nice job of connecting behavior to structure, and of relating the emergence of oscillations to eigenvalues in the linearized system.

Units balance, though I had to add a couple implicit scale factors to do so.

The general results are qualitatitively replicable. I haven’t tried to precisely reproduce the authors’ bifurcation diagram and other experiments, in part because I couldn’t find a precise specification of numerical methods used (time step, integration method), so I wouldn’t expect to succeed.

Unlike most SD models, this is a hybrid discrete-continuous system. Salmon, predator and zooplankton populations evolve continuously during a growing season, but with discrete transitions between seasons.

The model uses SAMPLE IF TRUE, so you need an advanced version of Vensim to run it, or the free Model Reader. (It should be possible to replace the SAMPLE IF TRUE if an enterprising person wanted a PLE version). It would also be a good candidate for an application of SHIFT IF TRUE if someone wanted to experiment with the cohort age structure.

sockeye.vmf

For a more policy-oriented take on salmon, check out Andy Ford’s work on smolt migration.

Logistic Chaos

This is an implementation of the logistic model – a very simple example of discrete time chaotic behavior. It’s sometimes used to illustrate chaotic dynamics of insect populations.

There’s a nice description here, and the other top links on google tend to be good.

Note that this version corrects an equation error in previous versions.

Logistic (Vensim .vpm)

Logistic (Vensim .vmf)